Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
June 15, 2014, Vol. 244, No. 12, Pages 1449-1461
Lina Jönsson, PhD; Agneta Egenvall, DVM, PhD; Lars Roepstorff, DVM
Design—Cohort study and genetic analysis.
Procedures—Horses were examined for health, conformation, and performance from 1983 to 2005, when they were 4 to 5 years old, and competition results from 1983 to 2012 were evaluated. Associations between conformation, health, and talent scores of young horses and longevity (years in competition) and lifetime performance were analyzed. Odds ratios of competing later in life among horses with joint flexion test reactions were determined. Genetic correlations between young horse health, conformation, and talent scores and longevity and lifetime performance were determined.
Results—Good overall 4- to 5-year-old health, conformation, and talent scores for performance were phenotypically and genetically associated with greater longevity and lifetime performance. Good health was genetically correlated (rg = 0.3) to longevity and lifetime performance. Among conformation traits, body type and movements in the trot were most strongly associated with future longevity; these were genetically correlated (rg = 0.2 to 0.3) to longevity and lifetime performance. Intermediate-sized horses were associated with highest longevity and lifetime performance. Positive flexion test results were associated with lower ORs (OR, 0.59 for moderate to severe and 0.76 for minor reactions) of competing later in life, compared with no reaction, and were associated with lower longevity (0.4 years).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Horses with good health and conformation at a young age had better longevity in competitions than the mean. Positive correlations suggested that improvement of health and conformation of young horses will enhance their future athletic talent and performance.
K. Martinson, E. Glunk and W. Weber
Description of the problem
Horses have evolved to consume several small forage-based meals throughout the day, often spending greater than 14.5 hours grazing each day. However, many of today’s horses are housed in boxstalls or drylots, fed two large meals each day, and have limited opportunity to forage. To mimic a more natural feeding pattern many horse owners provide unlimited access to hay. In many cases, this results in obesity because the horses tend to consume hay in excess of their energy requirement. Therefore, it is of interest to identify feeding methods that reduce excess intake, but extend the foraging period beyond a few hours around meal time.
To investigate the effect of hay net design on the rate and amount of forage consumed by adult horses.
Materials and methods
Eight adult horses in were fed in individual boxstalls. Horses were fed hay off the boxstall floor (control), or from one of three hay nets: large net (6 inch openings), medium net (1.75 inches) and small net (1.0 inch). Horses were acclimated to their assigned treatment for 2 days, followed by 3 days of data collection, and a wash-out period of 2 days. Horses had access to hay inside the nets for two 4hour periods: 7:00 to 11:00 am and 4:00 to 8:00 pm each day. Throughout the trial, grass hay was fed at 1% body weight twice each day. To determine forage consumption rate, stopwatches were started once horses began eating, and stopped once horses either finished all offered hay, were no longer interested in eating, or the 4 hour time period had expired. All refuse hay was collected and weighed. Total forage consumed was calculated by subtracting amount of refuse from hay offered.
Mean consumption rates were 3.3, 2.9, 2.4, and 1.9 pounds per hour for the control, large net, medium net and small net respectively. Horses were able to consume all hay from the control and large during the 4hour feeding period, but not all horses finished the hay meal when fed from the medium and small nets. Mean percentage of offered hay consumed was 95, 95, 89 and 72% for the control, large net, medium net and small net, respectively. A second study revealed that horse feeding from the medium net took just over 5 hours to consume the hay meal, while horses eating from the small nets took 6.5 hours to consume the meal. Both the control and large net resulted in consumption times of 3.2 and 3.4 hours, respectively.
Benefits to the equine industry
These results demonstrate that the small or medium nets were effective in decreasing rate and amount of forage consumed and increasing the total time of forage consumption by adult horses. If small or medium hay nets were used for twice daily feedings in a boxstall setting, the anticipated amount of time horses would spend foraging would be 10 to 13 hours each day; more closely mimicking a horse’s natural grazing behavior. Small and medium hay nets represent simple and affordable management tools for extending foraging time when meal feeding horses. However, use of the small and medium hay nets is not likely practical for all horses and it does take time (usually 4 to 5 feedings) for horses to acclimate to feeding from the nets.
In this project, we examined the effect of a 4-month intervention with horses on perceived social support, self-esteem and general self-efficacy among Norwegian adolescents aged 12-15 years. The intervention took place at farm-based stables and included work with the horses and riding. A waiting-list crossover design was used and the participants answered questionnaires at three time periods. Study I (N = 49) examined the effect of the intervention compared with the control group. Study II (N = 41) examined the relationship between the same psychological variables and change in mastering skills with horse. The intervention group reported a significant increase in perceived social support compared with the control group. There were no differences in self-esteem and general self-efficacy between the groups. The results from study II showed that a lower level of perceived social support prior to the intervention predicted an increase in mastering skills with the horse during the intervention.
adolescents; equine-assisted activities; horses; intervention; social support.
Santiago D. Gutierrez-Nibeyro, DVM, MS; Marcos P. Santos, DVM.
Objective—To determine the safety and short-term efficacy of intrabursal administration of botulinum toxin type B (BTXB) to alleviate lameness in horses with degenerative injury to the podotrochlear apparatus (PA).
Animals—10 Quarter Horses with degenerative injury to the PA.
Procedures—Degenerative injury to the PA was confirmed with diagnostic analgesia and imaging. Then, BTXB (3.8 to 4.5 U/kg) was injected into the podotrochlear (navicular) bursa of each horse. Three horses were used in a safety evaluation. Subsequently, video recordings of lameness evaluations were obtained for 7 client-owned horses 5 days before (baseline) and 7 and 14 days after BTXB treatment and used to determine the effect of BTXB injection on lameness; 1 horse was removed from the study 8 days after BTXB treatment. Three investigators who were unaware of the treated forelimbs or time points separately reviewed the recordings and graded the lameness of both forelimbs of the horses.
Results—Improvement in lameness of the treated forelimbs was detected at 1 or both time points after BTXB administration in all horses. However, all horses had some degree of lameness at the end of the study. Two horses developed transient increases in lameness 48 to 72 hours after treatment; lameness resolved uneventfully.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Intrabursal injection of BTXB temporarily alleviated chronic lameness in horses with degenerative injury to the PA, without causing serious short-term adverse effects. Further investigation into the potential use of BTXB in horses affected by degenerative injury to the PA is warranted.
Modern day horse-human relationships entail different types of sport and riding activities, which all require learning. In evaluating the interaction between learning and emotions, studying normal coping strategies or adaptive responses to the surroundings is critical. 34 horses were involved in a cognitive test, in the absence of physical effort, to analyze performance, as well as physiological and behavioral responses related to learning, memorization and recall, associated to the capacity to reverse a learned model. Synthetic Equine Appeasing Pheromone (EAP) was used in 17 horses in order to modulate their emotional state and evaluate differences in cognitive-emotional response during cognitive effort in comparison to the control group (placebo group). Both groups showed statistically significant changes in heart rate during the test, indicating emotional and physio-cognitive activation. The EAP group produced fewer errors and made more correct choices, showing behaviors related to increased attention, with less influence from environmental stimuli. The capacity to learn to learn, as shown in the bibliography, allows animals to establish conceptual learning, when a normal or positive emotional state (in this case modulated by semiochemicals) is used to control limbic system activation and, consequently, decrease stressful/fearful reactions, resulting in better learning capacities during the cognitive test.
Equine Purchase Exam Notes for Buyers and Sellers
What it is a purchase exam?
-Extensive examination that takes 1-6 hours to perform, for the purpose of determining suitability of a horse for the intended purpose.
-A internationally recognized and organized process that generates legal documents often used by attorneys, insurance companies and breed registries.
-Goal of the purchase emamination is for the veterinarian to discover all possble physical, physiological, psychological and historical information on the subject horse and present those findings to the prospective buyer or agent to make an informed decsion.
What a purchase exam is not?
-An exam to establish and provide warranty.
-A pass/fail test.
Core Components of Purchase Exam at Rogue Equine Hospital.
-Clear identification/description of the horse, including of brands, tattoos, markings and color, sex and breed.
-Current diet and specific components
-Current housing and variations
-Preventative health care history
-Eyes and glands and skin/coat
-Mouth and teeth
-Heart and lungs
-Brain and spinal cord
-Neck, back and hips
-Upper and Lower limbs, including joints
-Objective data – heart and respiratory rate and temperature
-Walk, trot and canter
-Passive flexion stress tests
-Physical response to work/exercise (heart rate and respiratory rate + quality)
Occasionally Added Componenets
-Walking side pull
-Limb placement/obstacle course
-Under saddle work
Exam May Include/Optional
-Blood work – complete scan – chemistry, complete blood count and fibrinogen
-Drug test – blood or urine
-Reproductive evaluation – if indicated
-Diagnostic procedures – radiography and ultrasound
-Gait Analysis – Equinosis System
-Genetic testing – see below:
–Parentage/Genetic Marker Report
–Cerebellar Abiotrophy Screening Test (CA) Lavender Foal Syndrome
–Coat Color: Red Factor + Agouti Package – Appaloosa Spotting- Red Factor – Agouti – Camarillo White W4 – Champagne – Cream – Dun – Pearl Silver – Lethal White Overo – Sabino1 Splashed White – Tobiano – Dominant White W10 Gray
–Glycogen Branching Enzyme Deficiency (GBED)
–Hereditary Equine Regional Dermal Asthenia (HERDA)
–Hyperkalemic Periodic Paralysis (HYPP)
–Horse Embryo Pre-Implantation Genetic Diagnosis
–Horse Embryo Clone Validation – DNA + Mitochondrial
–Junctional Epidermolysis Bullosa (JEB)
Important points for the buyer
-If possible, and an under-saddle prospect, ride or have appointed agent ride more than once.
-Consulting an equine professional with experience in the discipline for which a horse is being considered is highly recommended. This fact will increase the probability of a successful outcome.
-Engage Vet who is familiar with intended use of the horse
-It is okay to use the regularly attending veterinarian for the horse, however it is legally and ethically a standard for the veterinarian to do a complete record search on the horse and fully disclose that record in its entirety. Partial disclosures should not be requested and so disclosed.
-Ask cost of procedure and additional tests. Request estimates.
-Discuss experience and knowledge of the horse, with veterinarian, in private prior to exam.
-Know shoeing schedule, vaccination schedule so exam is not influenced negatively by timing
-Discuss findings in private after the exam
-Enter into the process expecting findings that may surprise you and the seller. Carefully handle the situation considering the seller, trainer or representative is possibly embarrassed to unknowingly present under the conditions. Diplomacy is important for the sake of everyone present.
-If owner or direct person responsible is not present, explore why? Be careful with questions.
-Remain opened minded through the exam and wait for open discussion with veterinarian regarding findings.
-All working horses will require a degree of management. The question will be: Is the the potential cost of maintenance acceptable in the big picture.
**Study: Top level jumping horses pulled aside and radiographed as they left show ring from successful showing. Nearly all horses had significant findings.
-Lame horses should not be summarily rejected without knowing adequate information as to why the horse is lame.
-Buyer should respect the reputation of the horse, seller or representative by not discussing the findings of the exam, whether accepted or rejected, with third parties. Seller could claim defamation if false statements made.
Important notes for the seller
-It is okay to use the regularly attending veterinarian for the horse, however it is legally and ethically a standard for the veterinarian to do a record search on the horse and fully disclose that record in its entirety. Partial disclosures should not be requested and so disclosed. This is an extreme legal risk for the veterinarian and seller if not done correctly.
-Present well groomed animal. Good impression, well cared for.
-Consider shoeing and vaccination schedule. Optimum is 2 weeks out for best presentation (hooves/shoeing)
-Have written vaccination and de-worming schedule. Not only convenient but gives buyer a degree if confidence in health care.
-Disclose health care history. Understood that possible negative response, however, injured reputation or at worst – lawsuit may be avoided.
-Practice and establish in hand trot and lunge as it makes for good presentation. Poor presentation leaves many holes in data collection. Lack of information prevents ability to offer opinion on suitability. Lack of information often leads to poor suitability or many questions that cannot be answered.
-Give space to the veterinarian and buyer to have a frank discussion in private. The conversation needs to be private to allow full disclosure. Legally this is required (disclosure).
-It is better that a horse be rejected based on a through exam and complete process. There is an end.
-Even though Seller owns or has legal interest in the horse, information collected on the horse is owned and controlled by the buyer. The buyer may release a portion or all documents (example – radiographs, but no written report). Until that time, the veterinarian cannot discuss findings with anyone other than the buyer or the appointed agent.
This document in no way is to be used or construed as legal advice or acted upon solely. For current and accurate legal advice, you must consult an attorney who is specifically trained in contract and equine law.
Steaming’s Effect Horse Hay Studied
By Casie Bazay, BS, NBCAAM
Soaking hay in water is a common practice used to reduce dust and non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) levels for horses with respiratory or metabolic conditions. But soaking can leach essential nutrients, such as phosphorus and magnesium, from hay and be labor-intensive.
In the last few years hay steaming has gained popularity as a soaking alternative, but how does it compare to soaking? University of Minnesota researchers, who recently studied soaking’s effect on hay, set out to answer that question.
“We had been receiving many questions from horse owners and professionals about the effectiveness of steaming on forage quality and no data (that we could find) existed,” explained Krishona Martinson, PhD, assistant professor in the Department of Animal Science.
The group set out to evaluate steaming’s effects on four factors:
Nutritive values, including dry mater (DM), crude protein, water soluble carbohydrates (WSC), ethanol soluble carbohydrates (ESC), calcium, and phosphorus among others;
Airborne dust particles (TSP, or total suspended particulates); and
Horses’ voluntary dry matter (DM) intake.
Two hay producers harvested two lots of alfalfa-orchardgrass small-square bales at different moisture levels. The researchers randomly selected 40 bales from each lot and took core samples from 26 bales in each lot to analyze.
Then, the team classified the bales as having either low mold (LM) or medium mold (MM) concentrations. Researchers then selected 10 LM and 10 MM bales to steam for 90 minutes using The Professional Hay Steamer by Happy Horse Products, Ltd. Samples from the steamed bales were also analyzed.
Finally, the team fed six adult horses steamed and un-steamed LM and MM hay in a 10-day crossover design to measure the animals’ hay intake. Horses received both steamed and un-steamed hay from one lot simultaneously for a 2-hour period each day.
The team concluded that steaming hay:
Reduced the DM concentration for LM and MM hay, by 14 and 11%, respectively;
Reduced WSC by 12% and ESC by 31% in MM hay, but had no effect on WSC or ESC in LM hay;
Did not affect other measured nutritive values in MM or LM hay;
Reduced mold concentrations in by 99% in LM hay and 91% in MM hay; and
Considerably reduced TSP in MM hay (by 55%) but did not affect TSP in LM hay.
Additionally, the researchers found that steaming did not increase horses’ MM hay intake, but horses did consume more LM hay after steaming. Martinson explained this could be because steaming kills the mold, but doesn’t remove it: “If mold had an unpalatable flavor …. its mere presence, whether dead or alive, likely affected forage intake rates.”
Martinson said the main benefit of steaming appears to be the increase in consumption of good-quality hay. She added that “steamed hay might be useful for horses recovering from surgery, malnourished horses, older horses with poor teeth, or picky eaters.”
Martinson said soaking is likely “more affordable and a better solution when managing horses with respiratory issues or when the goal is leaching out NSC (for horse with laminitis, EMS, obesity) or potassium (for horses with HYPP).”
The study, “Effect of hay steaming on forage nutritive value and dry matter intake by horses,” was published in the December issue of Journal of Animal Science.
Disclaimer: Seek the advice of a qualified veterinarian before proceeding with any diagnosis, treatment, or therapy.
Effect of different head-neck positions on physical and psychological stress parameters in the ridden horse.
J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl). 2013 Dec 13;
Authors: Zebisch A, May A, Reese S, Gehlen H
Different head-neck positions (HNPs) are used in equestrian sports and are regarded as desirable for training and competition by riders, judges and trainers. Even though some studies have been indicative of hyperflexion having negative effects on horses, this unnatural position is frequently used. In the present study, the influence of different HNPs on physical and psychological stress parameters in the ridden horse was investigated. Heart rate (HR), heart rate variability (HRV) and blood cortisol levels were measured in 18 horses. Low frequency (LF) and high frequency (HF) are power components in the frequency domain measurement of HRV which show the activity of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system. Values were recorded at rest, while riding with a working HNP and while riding with hyperflexion of the horse’s head, neck and poll. In addition, rideability and behaviour during the different investigation stages were evaluated by the rider and by an observer. Neither the HR nor the HRV showed a significant difference between working HNP (HR = 105 ± 22/min; LF/HF = 3.89 ± 5.68; LF = 37.28 ± 10.77%) and hyperflexion (HR = 110 ± 18; LF/HF = 1.94 ± 2.21; LF = 38.39 ± 13.01%). Blood cortisol levels revealed a significant increase comparing working HNP (158 ± 60 nm) and hyperflexion (176 ± 64 nm, p = 0.01). The evaluation of rider and observer resulted in clear changes of rideability and behavioural changes for the worse in all parameters collected between a working HNP and hyperflexion. In conclusion, changes of the cortisol blood level as a physical parameter led to the assumption that hyperflexion of head, neck and poll effects a stress reaction in the horse, and observation of the behaviour illustrates adverse effects on the well-being of horses during hyperflexion.
PMID: 24329719 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
Hours of Operation
Mon-Fri: 8:00 A.M. to 5:00 P.M.
Saturday: By Appointment Only
14099 Highway 62
Eagle Point, Oregon 97524